Black holes are regions in space with an incredibly strong gravitational pull, where nothing, not even light, can escape. They originate from Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity and come in different sizes, with their mass determining their strength and influence. Stellar black holes form when massive stars collapse, while supermassive black holes are found at the centers of most galaxies, including our own. Despite their light-trapping nature, scientists have been able to infer their presence through their gravitational effects on surrounding matter and light. Recently, the first direct image of a supermassive black hole was captured by the Event Horizon Telescope, continuing to challenge our understanding of the universe.
Betelgeuse is a red supergiant star located in the constellation Orion that is one of the largest and brightest stars visible from Earth. It is near the end of its life cycle, having exhausted its core hydrogen fuel and begun fusing helium into heavier elements, and is believed to be the precursor to a brilliant supernova event. Astronomers have used various techniques to study Betelgeuse's surface features, temperature variations, and other properties, and in late 2019 and early 2020, it experienced an unusually significant dimming event. This has led to speculation that it might be on the verge of going supernova, and studying its eventual supernova explosion will provide valuable insight into the late stages of stellar evolution.